Language Across Curriculum: A Post Modern Trend in Language Teaching

The Master Blogger

man reading book beside woman reading book Photo by Burst on

Language Across Curriculum is a modern concept that a foreign or second language should be taught out of the traditional language classroom by using contextual and content based language teaching methodologies throughout the school hours. Hence it demands that language learning should occur in language classroom as well as other subject classrooms.

Principles behind Language Across Curriculum

The introduction of Language Across Curriculum is based on some modern studies and findings like Content Based Instruction (CBI), Content Integrated Language Learning (CILL), Skill Acquisition Concepts and the Immersion Theory of Language Learning. Some other cognitive theories also can be regarded the principles behind this curriculum.CBI and CILL are two almost same movements in language learning in America and England. These movements present the following Principles.

  1. Natural language acquisition occurs in context; natural language is never learned divorced from meaning, and content-based instruction provides a context for…

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The autobiography of a District Education Officer

My decision to join the post of a District Education Officer in a district far away from the State capital was received with disbelief, derision and disapproval by my colleagues, friends, relatives and well-wishers. “Has he gone mad?” the Principal asked my colleagues. “Why did you go abroad for higher studies in literature if your ultimate aim was to be cog in the machine in the Education Department?” my colleagues questioned me. “Wants to mint money,” remarked the righteous relatives, “There’s enough money to loot,” they whispered at my back. ‘What a shame!” lamented the friends, “From the seat of higher learning to the bastion of corruption and nepotism!”
Braving the adverse criticism of my ‘well-wishers’, I accepted the offer and made all the arrangements to proceed to the District assigned to me. On the preceding day of my departure, on the advice of a senior officer of the Education directorate, I went to meet the Education Minister. It was my first visit to a minister’s bungalow. After all the formalities of a security check, I was ushered into the air-conditioned room in which the Minister was busy reading newspapers. “Come in, come in,” the Minister welcomed me with a smiling face. “You’ve decided to join, right?” the Minister asked me . “ Yes, Sir ” I replied. I was in a shock. How could he know my predicament? “From the ivory tower to the open field!” I don’t remember if it was spoken in jest or in earnest.
I was with the Minister for about 30 minutes and when I was about to leave the room, he said, “Go and join, but don’t go to office every day.” Being startled, I exclaimed, ”Sorry, can’t follow you.” A Minister asking me not to go to office every day! “Yes,” he said emphatically. “At least, for the first month. You will get a jeep and a driver. Go and visit as many schools as possible. They need you. If you sit in the office the whole day, you will be too busy in transfer, posting, court cases and trivial complaints pouring in every day. Visit all the elementary schools of the district in the first month itself and have a rapport with the teachers, not with the middlemen.” Thanking the Minister, I left his room. “Go and join, but don’t go to office every day!” What a peculiar instruction, I told myself.
On the first day, soon after reaching the office, I was flooded by fifty or sixty letters kept on a tray of my table. A Grade IV employee of the office had opened the envelops and put the letters on my table for my perusal. So many letters on a single day! Not knowing what to do with these letters which seemed like arrows aimed at a hapless new officer, I summoned the Bara Babu, the Head Assistant. The nice, all knowing Bara Babu allayed my fear with a smiling face. “Sir, you have nothing to do. Please put your initial with the date on the top of the letter, read the subject line and mark it for the concerned assistant. If it is related to ‘Midday meal’, mark it to Mr XX, if it is related to finance, mark it to Mr. DB, if it is about disciplinary action against a teacher, mark it to Mr.SB and if it is about any data required by the Government, mark it to Mr, CKB, the Statistical Assistant. The letters will be processed by the concerned assistants. They are very trusted people, Sir. You can approve their drafts without any hesitation. Your predecessor must have briefed you while handing over the charge!” The Head Assistant stopped with a mischievous smile. “But, what about the letters regarding academic matters? I enquired, “Who handles letters related to academic matters?” “Academic matters?” the Head Assistant stared at me, “All matters are academic in this office, Sir. We don’t do anything non-academic” It was my turn to stare at him.
Streams of visitors came pouring in. The two Deputy Inspectors of schools and the twelve Block Elementary Officers of the District came one by one to pay their obeisance to the district head. The two Deputy Inspectors of Schools were on the verge of retirement. They knew the names of all the schools of their subdivisions. The Block Elementary Officers were quite impressive in their attire. Some of them knew their rule books by heart but not the names of the textbooks used in the schools. I was happy to know that they were well qualified, trained and experienced. All of them had been working in the district for a pretty long time and had a very good rapport with my predecessor. In spite of the hardships faced by them they were committed to their duties, they claimed. Some of the leaders of the teachers’ unions were not good and I should be cautious, they told me rather casually. As a new comer to the district, I should seek the opinion of the local people and the local MLAs, they opined in a rather roundabout way.”Don’t worry, Sir. Please call us whenever you need any help.” they assured me while departing with a handshake which did not seem very warm.

It was a very spacious room. There was a big map of the district decorating the wall in front of me. It showed the location of the schools. As there was no Google map in those days, I could not figure out the distance of the schools. I memorized the names of a few schools and dialed the number of the Deputy Inspector of Schools whose office was just on the other side of the road. Knowing my intention of visiting two randomly selected schools next day, the Deputy Inspector said, “Don’t worry, Sir. I’ll inform them. Your driver knows the route. He will take you straight.” “No, no. Please don’t inform them. It should be a surprise visit. I would like to find out how a school runs on a normal day.” “ A normal day!” my subordinate officer exclaimed. “Normal is abnormal and abnormal is normal, Sir”. What an amazing statement. “Do you write poetry?” I asked. “Why are you asking such a question, Sir?” the Deputy Inspector of School was shocked, it seemed. A District Educator Officer talks of poetry? How to tell him what happens when the opposition between two words is neutralised. Deviation is a stylistic feature for me , not for my poor official at the sub divisional level whose life revolves round the files. (to be continued)

Linguistic pluralism: A lesson learnt from a cab driver

Though I am proud of them, I envy them too. They are the epitome of linguistic pluralism, they switch from one language to another just as they change the gear, the first gear to the second, the second to the third, and again from the third to the second depending on the speed of their cabs. Yes, I am referring to the Bengaluru cab drivers. Majority of these cab drivers who hail from various parts of Karnataka have a working knowledge of Kannada, Telegu, Tamil, Hindi and English which a linguist like me could not acquire in spite of my love for these languages. I may know how to analyze a language from the point of view of Generative phonology, I can tell you what are the allophonic variations of a phoneme or I can give a talk on how a language like Mullukurumba spoken in the Nilgiris has the character of a ‘mixed language’ sharing various phonological, morphological and lexical features of Kananda, Tamil and Malayalam, but I don’t have the linguistic prowess that a poor cab driver of Bengaluru possesses. Have I not the reason to envy them?
Linguistic pluralism is a condition in which languages spoken in a context are multiple and are understood by many. It thrives when speakers do not hesitate to speak in a language he or she desires and the language spoken is accepted even if it is not fully understood by the person to whom it is spoken.
Just two days back, I was in a hurry to leave the university soon after my lunch. I booked a cab and it reached the pickup point as shown by the App. The moment I got into the cab, the driver asked me, “Oota aitha, Sir?”(Had your lunch, Sir?). “Aithu”, I replied hoping that he would pay his attention to driving rather than to his oota’ (lunch). But the cab driver of a highly cheerful disposition continued, “ spostobagini borolla? (Can’t speak fluently?”). I was silent knowing my limitation, but he went on. “No problem, Sir. I know Kannnada, Telegu, Tamil, English, Hindi. “That’s nice,” I spoke in English, the language of my livelihood. “Nimda Hindi?” (Are you a Hindi speaking person?), the cab driver enquired.
Linguistic pluralism is not encouraged by the votaries of linguistic chauvinism. All of us love our languages. We think in our mother tongue, we look at the world through our mother tongue, we are always ready to fight and die for our mother tongue. This is quite natural as we owe our existence to our mother, motherland and the mother tongue. But carrying pride in one’s language “too far” is called linguistic chauvinism. My mother tongue is the best, why should I speak your tongue? This kind of linguistic intolerance is anachronistic in the modern period of globalization. The more the merrier.
My musing on linguistic pluralism this morning is triggered by a news item published in the Times of India a few days back. It is reported that the Delhi Government is launching a ‘Spoken English’ course for students studying in Government schools from June onwards and the Directorate of Education, NCR, Delhi will organize the programme in collaboration with the British Council, India-McMillan Education, Academy for Computers Training and Trinity College London. Expressing his happiness, the Delhi Chief Minister has tweeted “Government school students mostly come from economically poor backgrounds. When I meet them, this was their biggest demand – Sir, ‘hame English bolna sikhwa dijiye.’ (Sir, help us to learn spoken English). I am so happy this course is now starting for government school students.”
Will this initiative remove the great English divide plaguing the language teaching scenario of the country? It is unfortunate that the benefits of learning English have not percolated through the various strata of our society. The vernacular medium students coming from the disadvantaged sections of the Indian society are desperate to have the English card to get an access to the protected citadel of the English knowing elites. The following remark by David Graddol, the author of the book, ‘English Next India’ is quite relevant in this context: “As part of that up skilling programme, India now aspires to make English universal, after a couple centuries of it being the preserve of an elite. But that must remain no more than an aspiration for longer than most people imagine. It will take another two or three generations to come near realising it. And is it necessary? Is it desirable? And if English is not democratised in this way, can India find a way of exploiting its English potential in a manner which leads to inclusive development, improving the lives of the masses?”
What are our strategies to democratize English? “No one should be left out”, as sang by Tagore: “The West has opened its doors, and everyone brings its gifts (home),/to exchange and to assimilate, and no one left out—/on the shores of this mighty ocean of humanity.” (Sanchaita, Kolkata). How long should an English-starved child of a Govt school cry “Sir, ‘hame English bolna sikhwa dijiye.” ?

A 5 day course on Academic Writing in English

Can we think of a short 5 day introductory course on ‘Academic writing in English’ which will familiarize the participants to the relationship between the forms and practices of disciplinary genres and will empower them to articulate their ideas and perspectives as per the established norms of academic writing in English? Postgraduate and M.Phil. students, research scholars working for their PhDs. across India and young writers interested in getting their papers published in international journals often feel the need for undergoing a short course on Academic Writing in English and keeping in view the felt need of a large number of Indian scholars and postgraduate students, the present course has been designed as a skill development exercise. It is meant for developing writing skills in Academic English, not for awarding a degree in Academic Writing in English. It is a 30 hour face to face course followed by online support as per the needs and the areas of interest of the participants.
1.Introduction: As a topic of inquiry and pedagogy, writing has been gaining increasing importance in the language classrooms throughout the world. Writing is no more viewed as a mere non-verbal means of communication, it is viewed as an index of the writers’ ability to interpret, analyze and express themselves clearly, correctly and vividly. It is the culmination of a language user’s repertoire in the target language.
Writing, whether academic or non-academic is always interactive, it is the interaction between the writer and the reader. Writing becomes meaningful and communicative only when the writer has an audience and a purpose for writing. The notion of writing as an organic interactive process is based on three solid blocks: audience, purpose and topic and these three blocks are equally important in all types of writing, shared writing, interactive writing, guided writing and independent writing. In order to sharpen the cognitive processes involved in process writing, language teachers have to use ample practice techniques for generating ideas, such as keeping a journal, brainstorming, free writing and to help the learners to understand the difference between revising and editing.
2. An Academic Writing Course in English:
In spite of the important role played by writing in the diverse fields of human interaction, academic institutions in India often ignore the importance of cultivating higher order writing skills among the students and the professionals. There is a paucity of institutions that run certificate, diploma or degree courses in academic writing in English. Some English Departments of a few Indian universities have papers on ‘Written English’ at the major or the post-graduation level, but these papers hardly equip the students with the specialized skills of writing in English. Postgraduate Departments of Modern Indian Languages in the colleges and universities in India often take it for granted that basic writing skills learnt in schools are enough for writing any discourse in the mother tongue at the graduation level. The absence of adequate academic literacy skills often poses serious problems for Indian undergraduate and postgraduate students who are required to conduct research, summarize, paraphrase and cite sources and adopt genre specific writing conventions. Writing tasks even in the first language involve a highly creative use of composing processes and a good command of the language.
3. Objectives of the Course
The present course aims to introduce the participants to the theory and practice of academic writing and to equip them with the tools necessary for writing academic essays, reports, articles, research papers and dissertations in English as per the accepted principles and conventions of academic writing in English. The course will enhance the participants’ conceptual understanding of the nature and scope of academic writing and will enable them to communicate their ideas in English in an appropriate manner, thematically as well as stylistically.
Topics like how to write the abstract of a research paper, how to present an argument and validate it with supporting evidences, how to reflect and write down the findings, how to paraphrase without resorting to plagiarism and how to maintain structural and thematic cohesion of a written text will be explored during the course.
There is a lot of controversy on the nature and scope of teaching, learning and assessing writing in English in an international context. The contrastive rhetoric theory propounded by Kaplan(1966) presumed that L2 students wrote in English according to the rhetorical conventions of their home cultures. Connor (1996) tried to explain why L2 students’ writing lacked linearity, logic and coherence of well-written English texts. But the findings of Kaplan and Connor received a great deal of criticism as ‘many novice L1 writers also exhibit nonlinear and digressive rhetorical patterns, implicating a developmental stage’ ( Casanave,2012:286).The present course on academic writing in English is based on the assumption that improvement in writing comes in developmental stages and in order to help the learners in acquiring the skills of writing academic English, we should provide them with adequate practice, through reading and through exposure to the models of academic writing. The second language writing development is neither linear nor monolingually achieved. Nurturing the cognitive and linguistic resources of the L2 learners can alone help her write competently in the target language.
4. Course content:
(a) What is academic writing, Basic elements of academic writing, relationship between writing and speaking, writing as a social and cultural phenomenon, writing as a cognitive activity
(b) Models of the writing process, integrating knowledge of topic, knowledge of audience
(c) Approaches to writing: genre based approach, Product based approach, Process based approach
(d) Language and rhetorical style, writing in first language and writing in a second language, Exploring the linguistic features of the written communication in English, semantic and ideological considerations in academic writing
(e) Presenting the stylistic features of English, helping the learners to navigate through genre specific written works in English, explaining relevant written styles with the help of exemplars.
(f) Stages of Writing: Generating ideas, Focusing on ideas, organizing ideas, drafting
(g) The Essentials of Writing: Thesis Statement, Topic Sentences, characteristics of body paragraph, conclusion, hands on experience, responding to the learners’ writing, focusing on content and structure, making the learners’ aware of the correlation between the global content and organization of ideas, prompting the learners to reflect on their own writing
(h) Writing with sources: Types of sources, locating sources, taking notes from sources, avoiding plagiarism, documenting sources

5. Course Strategy
The course strategy is based on the models of enhancing advanced writing skills which prompt the participants to produce relevant ideas, evaluate these ideas, organize and structure the ideas, conform to grammatical and stylistic conventions, write a draft, revise it and produce a final version.

(Anyone interested in organizing a 5 day course on Academic Writing in English in their institutions/organizations may write to

A silent linguistic invasion in the family circle

The purists of Indian languages may frown at the use of English during our interpersonal communication in Indian languages. The champions of the mother tongue education may consider code switching from Indian languages to English or ‘translangauging’ a sign of our snobbery to a foreign tongue that we inherited from our former colonial rulers. But the language behavior of an average educated Indian often indicates an all pervasive influence of English in our day to day life. Though English is an associate official language of India, its use in our daily life is not always official, it is often more than official, it is personal, emotional and social. English has become an integral part of the inner psyche of a large number of educated Indians who are exposed to English in numerous contexts. The spontaneous use of English words, phrases, idioms and expressions in the inner circle of the educated Indian families is amazing indeed! The way English has been replacing the use of mother tongues in the verbal repertoire of the educated Indians in their emotional life is a fit case for sociolinguistic study.
While analyzing the language of a a number of TV serials in Bengali, I started wondering if the word ‘Husband’ comes from the Bengali lexicon. In a popular Bengali TV serial broadcast in the evening, the anchor asks a participant, “Who has come with you?”, Quick comes the reply, “amar husband”. (my husband). Being intrigued, I watched some other serials in which the female characters had to refer to their husbands. In all the cases, it was “amar husband” (my husband). Though Bengali equivalent of husband is ‘swami’, ‘pati’,’bor’, the characters in the TV serials never use them. Doesn’t it follow the general trend followed in the educated Bengali society? A young educated girl asks her newly married friend, “ ei, tor hubbir khobor ki?” ( Hi, how is your hubby?). Hubby, not ‘Bor’. Are Bengali words ‘swami, ‘Bor’’ becoming obsolete?
আন্টি (auntie) is another word that has replaced Bengali words like মামি,(mami) পিসি (pisi) and মাসী (masi). Mother’s sister (Masi in Bengali) or father’s sister (Pisi in Bengali) had an emotional bondage for the Bengali children of the earlier generation. But these words are often alien to the tongue of the Bengali children of the present generation. The Bengali lullaby, “Ghum parani masi pisi, moder bari eso” does not make any sense to the English fed Bengali children. Similarly, Words like ‘kaku’, ‘jethu’ are being systematically replaced by the word ‘uncle’.
‘Girl friend’ and ‘boy friend’ have also become Indian terms of reference. No young man refers to his ‘girl friend’ in translation! In a number of regional films, the hero and the heroine express their feelings in Indian language, but when the ultimate moment of proclamation comes, it’s in English, “I love you…..”. Is the intensity of the emotion lost if it is uttered in the mother tongue? No, English is spontaneous, the voice of the inner self!!!
The language landscape of the educated young generation of India is too complicated and should be studied dispassionately. The so called linguistic boundary of the fifties and the language debates of the past make no sense to the multilingual young people of India. They speak languages, not a language, they have thousand voices, not a voice, they have multiple perspectives, not the sole didactic perspective of their parents.

Learning a language is the ability to look at the world through that language

It is amusing to listen to many Indian ELT experts and policy makers using the expressions ‘English for empowerment’, ‘English as a global Resource,’ ‘English for upward mobility,’ ‘English for social equality’ and ‘English for global citizenship’.The publication of Graddol’s monumental books ‘Future of English’ and ‘English Next: India’, made Indian ELT luminaries ecstatic, I should say. They started chanting these phrses without trying to translate into action Graddol’s observations. I was present at the British Council, Kolkata when Graddol’s ‘English Next: India’ was released. On that day, I sincerely hoped that the ELT fraternity of India would be inspired by Graddol’s pioneering research and the ELT scenario of the country would move to a positive direction. Was it a day dream? I wonder in retrospect.
Phrases like like ‘English for Empowerment’ or ‘ English for Development’ sound good, they could lead us to better days, but when I meet students who are unable to utter two meaningful sentences in English even after studying English in the regional medium schools of this country for eight to ten years, I realize the hollowness of these highly eulogized expressions which are now a days the staple food for many ELT experts. Go to the regional, national and international seminars and conferences held in various Indian colleges and universities throughout the year and you will listen to a galaxy of ELT experts repeating the same old rhetoric to a gullible audience. The Indian ELT world is full of sound and fury, but nobody knows what it means to millions of our students whose dreams are shattered at the altar of ELT.
The paradoxical position of English is an enigma to many people. On the one hand, the ‘English advantage’ acquired and nurtured by the Indian youth is the envy of the rest of the world and it is this language that has given our engineers, doctors, scientists and academicians access to the global workplace. But, on the other hand, it is this language which hinders the success of millions of school children across the country. While English is the lamp of Alladin for the privileged, it is the proverbial Achilles heel for the underprivileged!
What ails ELT in India? The answer is simple: The syllabus, the textbook and the pedagogy: three points of the vicious triangle that haunt me even in my dreams.
It is really unfortunate that the teaching of English and the teaching of the mother tongue are placed at opposite poles in our school curriculum. Though the NCF Position Paper on English Language Teaching categorically pointed out that ‘English can occur in tandem with the first languages(s) of the learners at the lower primary stage, or at least in class I to III’, no attempt is made at the primary level to align the learning of the first language with the learning of the second language, that is, English. Have a look at the class 1 textbook of any Indian language and the class 1 English textbook prescribed by a State Board or the NCERT and you will see the disconnect between the two textbooks. Why does an English textbook alienate the young learners? The English textbooks often fail to prompt them to make a connection between the new language and their mental and social world but it is not the same in the case of the textbook used for teaching the mother tongue or the school language.The textbooks used for teaching the mother tongue or the school language, use the materials very carefully to prompt the learners to make a spontaneous connection between the language and their mental world.
A study of the class I language textbooks of a number of State Boards and the NCERT will bring out the mismatch between the English textbooks and the Indian language textbooks used by the same child in the same class .Can’t the English textbook writers and the writers of other Indian language textbooks develop textbooks in a collaborative manner to avoid this mismatch?
Learning a new language is not learning a few new words, expressions or the syntactical patterns of that language. Learning a language is the ability to look at the world through that language and therefore, a multilingual person has the ability to look at the world from multiple perspectives.
Learning a new language is bound to be a mechanical exercise if no experiential learning takes place through that language. Let’s take the poem, The Flying-Man prescribed in the NCERT class I English textbook. The learner is given the following task? “Choose your answer: The Flying-man is Superman. The Flying-man is a pilot. The Flying-man is an astronaut. The Flying-man is Batman.” What kind of experiential learning is visualized in this task? Compare this task with the true/false task given after the poem Rosoighar (Kitchen) of Rimjhim, the NCERT Hindi textbook for the same class. The poem Flying-Man alienates the child from her environment and she fails to connect her world with the world of the Flying-Man. The Hindi textbook for class I can have a poem about ‘Kitchen’, but the English textbook will be un-English if Batman is not mentioned in that book!