The advantages of thematic planning for teaching a new language are well known to the teachers teaching English to young learners. We know that the theme creates a meaningful context and the thematic planning in a language class shifts the instructional focus from “the language itself” to “the use of language”. A thematic unit gives the learners ample opportunities to use the target language in numerous meaningful contexts. While going through an exploration of the theme, the learners are less obsessed with vocabulary and grammar as the theme engages them in the appropriate use of the language. They learn the target language at the discourse level and are saved from the tyranny of isolated exercises with grammatical structures and mechanical drills.
As the whole world is going through the trauma inflicted by the pandemic called Covid 19, I wonder how we can use Pandemic as a theme to teach English to young learners in a non-native context in general and India in particular.
Let me start with Covid itself. Is it an English word? Look at the news bulletins of the TV channels and the regional newspapers. The word Covid is used as Covid in all the Indian languages. The word Covid is an acronym as it is formed from the portions of three distinct words: Corona (CO) Virus (VI) and Disease(D).
It is interesting to note that in India we have regional language words for diseases like tuberculosis ( ‘যক্ষ্মা’ in Assamese and Bengali),cholera( हैज़ा in Hindi), small pox (ಸಿಡುಬು in Kannada) and measles (হাম in Bengali) but no word for Covid till date.
Teaching vocabulary: from the known to the unknown:
Do we have different words to refer to epidemic and pandemic in Indian languages? Epidemic means महामारी Mahaamaaree in Hindi, ಸಾಂಕ್ರಾಮಿಕ Sāṅkrāmika in Kannada, মহামারী Mahāmārī in Bengali and అంటువ్యాధి Aṇṭuvyādhi in Telugu. Pandemic, on the other hand, has the following meanings in these languages. सर्वव्यापी महामारी sarvavyaapee mahaamaaree in Hindi, ಪಿಡುಗು Piḍugu in Kannada, অতিমারী atimārī in Bengali and మహమ్మారి maham’māri in Telugu.
Those who read vernacular newspapers or listen to regional TV channels must be aware of the use of English words related to the pandemic in Indian languages. Words like Covid (ಕೋವಿಡ್ in Kannada), korona,( कोरोना in Hindi, ಕೊರನಾ in Kannada), virus (वायरस in Hindi) lockdown, (लॉकडाउन in Hindi) unlock, quarantine( কোয়রান্টিন in Bengali), social distancing (सोशल डिस्टेंसिंग in Hindi, ventilator, isolation ward, PPT kit, (ಪಿಪಿಟಿ ಕಿಟ್),sanitiser, herd immunity, contact tracing, containment zone, mask are extensively used in vernacular newspapers and the day to day conversation of the Indians speaking their respective regional languages.
Though ‘mask is’ called ಮುಖವಾಡ (Mukhavāḍa) in Kannada and मुखौटा (mukhauta) in Hindi the English word mask (ಮೈಸ್ಕ in Kannada) or( मास्क in Hindi) is used extensively in the safety guidelines published in Kannada or Hindi. Therefore, teaching new vocabulary using the commonly used Covid19 related English words in the Indian language can be the first step in designing a lesson on English vocabulary for the beginners.
Once Covid 19 related Indianised English words are introduced in appropriate contexts, the teacher can introduce additional words related to the Pandemic. Coronavirus pandemic has been expanding our vocabularies since January 2020 and therefore a lexical chain of the words found in newspapers, advertisements, statutory warnings, Government guidelines on Covid 19 may be presented by simplifying the texts in which these words are used. Words like social distancing, community spread, contact tracing, self-quarantine, super-spreader, isolation, self-isolation, incubation period, comorbidity, flattening the curve, immunity, herd immunity (not hard immunity), Symptomatic and Asymptomatic person, containment area, personal protective equipment, or PPE, screening, ventilator, vaccine, PPE: personal protective equipment, WFH: Work from Home, ILI: Influenza like illness.
The following words can be used to teach the differences between related words: pandemic vs epidemic, quarantine vs isolation, respirator vs ventilator, contagious vs infectious, virus vs bacteria, asymptomatic vs asymptomatic.
Picture reading: Soon after the outbreak of the pandemic and the proclamation of lockdown in India, newspapers and the social media were full of the pictures of migrant workers heading towards their home states. Select two or three pictures of migrant workers heading towards their home states on foot or boarding trains to reach their destination and ask the children to describe the pictures. Or give another picture of shoppers waiting outside a shop maintaining social distance and prompt the children to respond to the picture. As the pictures portray real life situations confronting the affected people, children will find a meaning in describing the episodes and while doing so they will use English in meaningful contexts.
Responding to graphs: You can prepare a graphical presentation of the spread of the virus across the globe with names of the countries, number of people affected, the number of people cured and the number of casualties and ask the children questions on the data shown in the graph.
Advertisements, slogans, guidelines and witty remarks used on the screen or the social media can be used to initiate discussions in English. For example, Discuss with your friends the following quotes or slogans related to Pandemic in general and Covid 19 in particular: (a) Pandemic is an epidemic with a Passport, (b) The Corona virus has an ego, it does not come to you unless you invite it(c) If we are inside, the Corona will be outside.(d)The Corona does not distinguish between the rich and the poor.
Video presentation: Short animated videos can be prepared using the following points. (a) Stay home, (b) keep a safe distance, (c) wash hands often, (d) Cover your cough, €call the help line if someone is sick. After showing the videos to the children ask them to prepare their own skits and do the role play.
Using newspaper reports: Newspapers are full stories of the bravery of young children during the pandemic. You may collect some of these real life stories and read them to the children. When the reading is over, ask them questions on these stories to generate discussion and critical thinking. To cite an example, you may read the following story published in an Indian newspaper and ask the children a number of questions to enhance their listening comprehension, critical thinking and verbal communication in English. “An eight-year-old girl here has donated about Rs 25,000 of her savings to the poor who are struggling due to the Covid-19 lockdown. Dhiya, who dreams of becoming an IAS officer, has been saving up money to purchase a laptop, apparently to prepare for civil services exam, officials in the Collectorate here said.
On hearing about the humanitarian attitude of the girl, Puducherry Collector T Arun invited the Class III student and her parents to his office on Thursday to felicitate her. The aspiration of the student to sit in the collector’s chamber was fulfilled, as Arun let her see for herself how an IAS officer functions.
Earlier, the girl decided to do her bit after she was moved by the plight of the poor who haven’t had a morsel to keep them going till the lockdown ends. So, she decided to use her savings to buy provisions, essential goods and others for distribution to the suffering artists, drivers and other sections of people reeling under poverty, officials said. With the consent of her parents, the girl spent the amount on the commodities and distributed them to the poor. She had saved the money given to her as gift from her parents and relatives on various occasions. With a broad smile and amid applause by all those present including her parents, the girl got a hands-on experience of what it means to be a civil service official when she was allowed access to the Collector’s chamber.
Some suggested questions: (a) Why did Dhiya donate her savings for the poor? Are you aware of similar acts of charity done by kids during calamities? Share your experience with your friends.(b) How did Dhiya get a hands on experience of what it means to be an IAS officer? (c) How would you have encouraged the girls if you were the District Collector mentioned in the report ? Do you think Dhiya should get a national level award? (d) What would you have done if you were Dhiya?