By Nishi Pulugurtha These days I speak Telugu much less. Amma does not speak anymore; Alzheimer’s has wrought ravages with her speech. I still speak to her in Telugu. I am sure some bit of my talking does reach out to her somewhere. Appagaru is in another world.
The language that I first learnt to speak when I was a child was an accidental one as I happened to be born in a particular language community and the language of this community became my mother tongue by default. Like all other children of my age and locality, I had no choice in the selection of my mother tongue and I picked up the sound, the vocabulary and the idioms of this language as it was spoken in my immediate neighborhood. As a child I made the sense of the strange new world around me with the help of this language. I used this language to dream, to talk, to cry, to sing and even to quarrel with my siblings. Everything was perfectly alright till I went to school.
In the admission register of my primary school, my father declared Bengali as my mother tongue just as he had to enter my caste and religion in that register. To my horror, I came to know that the language that had nourished me during my preschool days was not a language at all, it was a dialect, a variant of the ‘standard’ Bengali language spoken by the educated people of Calcutta living thousands of miles away! It is the language of the elites of my community and if I am to climb the ladder of the upward social mobility I should give up the tongue of the rustics! When I grew up I realized that ‘mother tongue’ is an ancestral property that I inherited and it would be the marker of my identity as long as I am alive in his world.
Learning the ‘standard’ variety of my mother tongue was a nightmare for me. In the ‘standard’ language, a cat is called a “biral” but I knew it as a “mekur”, the “pani”(water) became ” jol” (water) when I brought it to school. The conflict between the “home language”, my mother tongue and the “school language” was enough to confuse me as a child. The conflict between my ‘unofficial’ mother tongue and the ‘official’ mother tongue traumatized me. As there was little opportunity of speaking the standard Bengali outside the classroom, my reading and writing ability in the official mother tongue got the upper hand. Whenever, I tried to speak the ‘standard’ variety with my friends, they would mock at me, ” Look, look, the desi kukur is barking like a bilati kukur!” ( A native dog is barking like a foreign dog.”
In retrospect, I feel that the compulsion of using another variety of my officially designated mother tongue was more threatening to my self-esteem than the requirement of using English at the Middle school stage. The experience of being scolded for using the mother tongue ‘wrongly’ or ‘inappropriately’ during the early childhood hunts me till today.
There is nothing unique in the story of my tryst with my mother tongue. Many children speaking the related varieties of an officially recognized language might have faced similar situations.
Determining the mother tongue is always problematic. I have met many children who do not have a single, easily identifiable mother tongue. Take the example of Rohan, a six year old child, the product of a mixed marriage. The father’s mother tongue is Bengali, an Indo-Aryan language while that of the mother is Khasi, an Austric language. The family has been living in Bangalore for more than a decade. The language of communication between Rohan’s father and his mother is English though both of them can speak Hindi, Bengali, Khasi and Kannada. Rohan speaks English while communicating with his parents. He understands both Bengali and Khasi a little though he does not utter a single word in those two languages in the presence of his parents or other paternal or maternal relatives. His caregiver at home is a monolingual Khasi lady who does not speak any language other than Khasi. Will Rohan’s parents declare English as his mother tongue as this is the ‘first language ’ that Rohan has learnt during his childhood? What happens to his ancestral mother tongue? If language is the marker of ethnicity, what will be the ethnicity of this boy whose mother tongue is neither Bengali nor Khasi? The common language between the parents is not the ancestral language of either of the parents.
Let me cite the case of Argha born and brought up in the multilingual cosmopolitan setting of Bangalore. His Bengali speaking parents never uttered a single Bengali word in his presence, they spoke to him in English since his birth and we also have our conversation in English whenever he was around. The first language that this boy has learnt for intra-personal as well as interpersonal communication is English. As Argha’s parents live in a cosmopolitan residential complex, Argha has learnt Hindi and Kannada along with English and he is now quite fluent in all the three languages. What will be the mother tongue of this multilingual boy? English, Hindi or Kannada? If mother tongue is linked to a child’s early language experiences, then Argha should have three mother tongues, English, Hindi and Kannada. In this multilingual scenario, Argha’s ancestral mother tongue is noting but a foreign language for him.
I have a question: Shouldn’t we give up the concept of a single mother tongue? Can we ask a child, “What are your mother tongues?” instead of asking him, “What’s your mother tongue?”
References: Gupta,A.F. (1997) ‘When mother tongue Education is not preferred’ in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development http://www.researchgate.net/publication/240535809
The Position Paper on English Language Teaching published by the National Council of Educational Research and Training, Government of India in 2005 stated that “English in India can occur in tandem with the first languages(s) of the learners at the lower primary stage, or at least in class I to III” and learning activities should be designed to create language awareness of the children exposed to English for the first time. In spite of this significant suggestion made in the said Position Paper on English Language Teaching, English textbooks used at the primary level in India often ignore the existing cognitive and linguistic abilities of the learners who are exposed to English along with their mother tongue or the school language and consequently, the English textbooks alienate the young learners who fail to make a connection between the new language and their mental world. The fact that children use languages for meaning making and making sense of the world around them is often ignored in presenting materials in the English textbooks.
The textbooks used for teaching the mother tongue or the school language, on the other hand, use the materials very carefully to prompt the learners to make a spontaneous connection between the language and their mental world. This double standard of preparing textbooks in English and the mother tongue creates a discordant note in the minds of the very young learners for whom learning English tends to be a mechanical exercise. An English teacher using a multilingual pedagogy in the classroom should be aware of the fact that L1 and L2 do not reside in two separate compartments in the mind of the bilingual child when she is exposed to a second language. L1 and L2 are interwoven in the L2 user’s mind in vocabulary, in syntax, in phonology and in pragmatics. Therefore, ‘learning an L2 is not just adding rooms to your house by building an extension at the back, it is the rebuilding of all internal walls’ (Cook, 2001:407). Using L2 along with the child’s L1 reinforces a child’s repertoire in both the languages and therefore, a multilingual pedagogy is likely to be a double blessing for an Indian child learning English along with her mother tongue or the school language. By providing space for exploring two or more languages together and prompting the children to examine the resources of their home languages in the English class room, the English teacher becomes instrumental in developing the multilingual awareness of the children.
Keeping in view the desirability of using multilingualism as a classroom resource (Agnihotri, 1995:3) for teaching English in India, I made a study to examine and explore the suitability of using the resources of the Hindi textbook, Rimjhim along with the English textbook Marigold used in class I of CBSE and many State Board schools of India. The study examined the linguistic and cognitive challenges faced by the learners in using the materials presented in Marigold and highlighted the suitability of using selected materials from Rimjhim along with the materials presented in the English textbook.
The study was s done in two parts: First, the two textbooks were evaluated using some of the established criteria of material evaluation (Tomlinson,2003) and next, the possibility of preparing a revised version of Marigold with the help of the materials presented in Rimjhim was explored from the point of view of a multilingual pedagogy.
The study used following criteria for evaluating the two textbooks. (a) Do the materials connect between the learning experience of the children in the classroom and the life outside the classroom? (b) Do the textbooks relate the new to the earlier knowledge of the child? (c) Are the language items presented in the books age appropriate? (d) Do the materials prompt the children to use the target language creatively? (e) Are the visuals cognitively demanding for the young learners? (f) Are the activities child-centric or teacher driven? (g) How authentic are the materials? (h) Do the materials presented in the textbooks adhere to local conditions and cultures so that the children can relate them to their familiar world? (i) Is there a scope for experiential learning, complete with activities and clear instructions and opportunities?
In both the English and Hindi textbooks, the units are designed thematically as thematic units help the learners to ‘interpret new language and new information on the basis of their background knowledge’ (Curtain, H. and Dahlberg, C.A, 2004:150). While the Unit 1 of Marigold is about the theme of the house and the people who live in the house, the Unit 1 of Rimjhim is about the school and the life around the school. In the Unit 1 of Marigold, words like girl, boy, grandfather, grandmother, father, mother, sister and brother are introduced while in the Unit 1 of Rimjhim words like school, teacher, park, courtyard, garden, swing are introduced. Though both the Units are theme based, the presentation of the lexical items in Rimjhim is more context embedded than those used in Mariglod.
The theme of the Unit 3 of Marigold and the Unit 9 of Rimjhim is the animal world. In the Unit 3 of Marigold, the children are asked to look at the pictures of kitten, cat, butterfly, rat, fish, seal, seagull, eel, elephant, flea, bee, lizard, alligator, whale and donkey and underline them in the poem. Words like cat, cow, sheep and monkey are, of course, introduced in the first unit of Marigold. In Unit 9 of Rimjhim, the pictures of cow, cat, rat, dog, rabbit, camel, lion, monkey, donkey and the elephant are introduced along with the Hindi words. If supplementary materials for the Unit 3 of Marigold are prepared taking the resources of the Unit 9 of Rimjhim, it would be quite interesting and useful for the children both cognitively as well as linguistically.
The theme of Unit 5 of the Hindi textbook is Transport. Words like car, truck, bus, scooter, cycle, auto-rickshaw, rail, guard and driver are used in this Unit in a highly context embedded manner. Showing the picture of a bus, the teacher tells the children about the passengers, the driver and other related facts. The theme of the Unit 10 of Marigold is primarily transport but the theme is not exploited in a comprehensive and creative manner. Pictures of a sailor, an astronaut, a pilot are given along with the pictures of a dentist, a farmer, a postman and a teacher and the children are asked “What shall I be when I grow up? Match the following: “A person who sails a ship”, “A person who flies a spaceship,” A person who flies an aeroplane.” While the lesson of the Hindi textbook takes into account the child’s previous knowledge and creativity, the English lesson ignores them and makes it a meaningless exercise. The Unit 5 of Rimjhim can be used for scaffolding the language activities of the Unit 10 of Marigold.
The materials presented in Marigold often fail to connect between the learning experience of the children in the classroom and the life outside the classroom. The activities given in Marigold are teacher driven and betray the perspectives of the teacher or the textbook writer. The child’s voice and the child’s perspectives are missing in a number of activities given in the book. In unit 10 of Marigold, for example, the child is asked to share her experience of an imaginary journey by a plane. The task is as follows: “Let’s pretend you are a pilot flying an aeroplane. (a) What will you see outside your aeroplane (i) during the day? (ii) at night? (b) What will you see inside your aeroplane?” How can a child imagine what a pilot sees inside the cockpit while flying a plane in the sky? Again, what kind of experiential learning can take place when after reading the poem, The Flying-Man, the child is given the following task? “Choose your answer: The Flying-man is Superman. The Flying-man is a pilot. The Flying-man is an astronaut. The Flying-man is Batman.” One wonders how a rural Indian child of class 1 will respond to the fictional superhero of American comic books. The poem Rosoighar (Kitchen) given in Unit 7 of Rimjhim can replace the poem The Flying-Man. The true/false tasks given towards the end of Unit 7 of Rimjhim are more child friendly and culture sensitive than the tasks given in Unit 10 of Marigold.
The visuals presented in Marigold are not cognitively demanding for the young learners, they are often contrived and do not take into account the child’s natural instinct to use language for self expression and meaning making. In Unit 1, the pictures of a boy and a girl are given and the child is asked to match the words with the pictures: Draw a line and say “I am a boy” and “I am a girl”. Why should a normal girl child say “I am a girl” pointing out at the picture of a girl? On the other hand, on page 24 of Rimjhim, there is a picture of a girl along with a question in Hindi, “What is the girl carrying on her head? Draw a picture”. This task is more authentic and child friendly than the artificial utterances given in Marigold.
The Unit 7 of Marigold and the Unit 11 of Rimjhim have the same title, A kite. Both the textbooks have poems telling the child how a kite flies and how a child feels when she sees the kite flying, and, therefore, the lessons can supplement one another from the point of view of a multilingual pedagogy.
On the basis of the discussion done so far, we may surmise that the resources available in the textbook used for teaching the mother tongue can be used judiciously, creatively and effectively for teaching English at the primary level from the point of view of a multilingual pedagogy. Be it English or any other language ,the same cognitive and linguistic process is set in motion when a child encounters a language textbook for decoding and meaning making. Therefore, teachers teaching English should not be allergic to the use of the materials available in the textbook used for teaching the mother tongue of the children. The present study implies that English textbook writers and the writers of other Indian language textbooks should develop textbooks in a collaborative manner instead of working in silos.
Agnihotri, R.K. (1995). Multilingualism as a classroom resource. In Kathleen, H A S. and Peter, P(eds.) Multilingual Education for South Africa. Johannesburg: Heinemann, pp. 3-7.
Cook, V.(2001). Using the first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern Language Journal, 57/3, pp.401-523.
Curtain, H. and Dahlberg, C.A.(2004). Languages and Children: Making the Match: New Languages for Young Learners, Grade K-8. Boston: Pearson.
NCERT (2006). The Position Paper on English Language Teaching, New Delhi: NCERT
Tomlinson ,B.(2003). Developing materials for Language Teaching. New York: Continuum.
NB. This is an edited version of my paper presented in a National Seminar organised by the Regional Institute of Education, Mysore, India in December 2017.
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Language Across Curriculum is a modern concept that a foreign or second language should be taught out of the traditional language classroom by using contextual and content based language teaching methodologies throughout the school hours. Hence it demands that language learning should occur in language classroom as well as other subject classrooms.
Principles behind Language Across Curriculum
The introduction of Language Across Curriculum is based on some modern studies and findings like Content Based Instruction (CBI), Content Integrated Language Learning (CILL), Skill Acquisition Concepts and the Immersion Theory of Language Learning. Some other cognitive theories also can be regarded the principles behind this curriculum.CBI and CILL are two almost same movements in language learning in America and England. These movements present the following Principles.
- Natural language acquisition occurs in context; natural language is never learned divorced from meaning, and content-based instruction provides a context for…
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My decision to join the post of a District Education Officer in a district far away from the State capital was received with disbelief, derision and disapproval by my colleagues, friends, relatives and well-wishers. “Has he gone mad?” the Principal asked my colleagues. “Why did you go abroad for higher studies in literature if your ultimate aim was to be cog in the machine in the Education Department?” my colleagues questioned me. “Wants to mint money,” remarked the righteous relatives, “There’s enough money to loot,” they whispered at my back. ‘What a shame!” lamented the friends, “From the seat of higher learning to the bastion of corruption and nepotism!”
Braving the adverse criticism of my ‘well-wishers’, I accepted the offer and made all the arrangements to proceed to the District assigned to me. On the preceding day of my departure, on the advice of a senior officer of the Education directorate, I went to meet the Education Minister. It was my first visit to a minister’s bungalow. After all the formalities of a security check, I was ushered into the air-conditioned room in which the Minister was busy reading newspapers. “Come in, come in,” the Minister welcomed me with a smiling face. “You’ve decided to join, right?” the Minister asked me . “ Yes, Sir ” I replied. I was in a shock. How could he know my predicament? “From the ivory tower to the open field!” I don’t remember if it was spoken in jest or in earnest.
I was with the Minister for about 30 minutes and when I was about to leave the room, he said, “Go and join, but don’t go to office every day.” Being startled, I exclaimed, ”Sorry, can’t follow you.” A Minister asking me not to go to office every day! “Yes,” he said emphatically. “At least, for the first month. You will get a jeep and a driver. Go and visit as many schools as possible. They need you. If you sit in the office the whole day, you will be too busy in transfer, posting, court cases and trivial complaints pouring in every day. Visit all the elementary schools of the district in the first month itself and have a rapport with the teachers, not with the middlemen.” Thanking the Minister, I left his room. “Go and join, but don’t go to office every day!” What a peculiar instruction, I told myself.
On the first day, soon after reaching the office, I was flooded by fifty or sixty letters kept on a tray of my table. A Grade IV employee of the office had opened the envelops and put the letters on my table for my perusal. So many letters on a single day! Not knowing what to do with these letters which seemed like arrows aimed at a hapless new officer, I summoned the Bara Babu, the Head Assistant. The nice, all knowing Bara Babu allayed my fear with a smiling face. “Sir, you have nothing to do. Please put your initial with the date on the top of the letter, read the subject line and mark it for the concerned assistant. If it is related to ‘Midday meal’, mark it to Mr XX, if it is related to finance, mark it to Mr. DB, if it is about disciplinary action against a teacher, mark it to Mr.SB and if it is about any data required by the Government, mark it to Mr, CKB, the Statistical Assistant. The letters will be processed by the concerned assistants. They are very trusted people, Sir. You can approve their drafts without any hesitation. Your predecessor must have briefed you while handing over the charge!” The Head Assistant stopped with a mischievous smile. “But, what about the letters regarding academic matters? I enquired, “Who handles letters related to academic matters?” “Academic matters?” the Head Assistant stared at me, “All matters are academic in this office, Sir. We don’t do anything non-academic” It was my turn to stare at him.
Streams of visitors came pouring in. The two Deputy Inspectors of schools and the twelve Block Elementary Officers of the District came one by one to pay their obeisance to the district head. The two Deputy Inspectors of Schools were on the verge of retirement. They knew the names of all the schools of their subdivisions. The Block Elementary Officers were quite impressive in their attire. Some of them knew their rule books by heart but not the names of the textbooks used in the schools. I was happy to know that they were well qualified, trained and experienced. All of them had been working in the district for a pretty long time and had a very good rapport with my predecessor. In spite of the hardships faced by them they were committed to their duties, they claimed. Some of the leaders of the teachers’ unions were not good and I should be cautious, they told me rather casually. As a new comer to the district, I should seek the opinion of the local people and the local MLAs, they opined in a rather roundabout way.”Don’t worry, Sir. Please call us whenever you need any help.” they assured me while departing with a handshake which did not seem very warm.
It was a very spacious room. There was a big map of the district decorating the wall in front of me. It showed the location of the schools. As there was no Google map in those days, I could not figure out the distance of the schools. I memorized the names of a few schools and dialed the number of the Deputy Inspector of Schools whose office was just on the other side of the road. Knowing my intention of visiting two randomly selected schools next day, the Deputy Inspector said, “Don’t worry, Sir. I’ll inform them. Your driver knows the route. He will take you straight.” “No, no. Please don’t inform them. It should be a surprise visit. I would like to find out how a school runs on a normal day.” “ A normal day!” my subordinate officer exclaimed. “Normal is abnormal and abnormal is normal, Sir”. What an amazing statement. “Do you write poetry?” I asked. “Why are you asking such a question, Sir?” the Deputy Inspector of School was shocked, it seemed. A District Educator Officer talks of poetry? How to tell him what happens when the opposition between two words is neutralised. Deviation is a stylistic feature for me , not for my poor official at the sub divisional level whose life revolves round the files. (to be continued)
Though I am proud of them, I envy them too. They are the epitome of linguistic pluralism, they switch from one language to another just as they change the gear, the first gear to the second, the second to the third, and again from the third to the second depending on the speed of their cabs. Yes, I am referring to the Bengaluru cab drivers. Majority of these cab drivers who hail from various parts of Karnataka have a working knowledge of Kannada, Telegu, Tamil, Hindi and English which a linguist like me could not acquire in spite of my love for these languages. I may know how to analyze a language from the point of view of Generative phonology, I can tell you what are the allophonic variations of a phoneme or I can give a talk on how a language like Mullukurumba spoken in the Nilgiris has the character of a ‘mixed language’ sharing various phonological, morphological and lexical features of Kananda, Tamil and Malayalam, but I don’t have the linguistic prowess that a poor cab driver of Bengaluru possesses. Have I not the reason to envy them?
Linguistic pluralism is a condition in which languages spoken in a context are multiple and are understood by many. It thrives when speakers do not hesitate to speak in a language he or she desires and the language spoken is accepted even if it is not fully understood by the person to whom it is spoken.
Just two days back, I was in a hurry to leave the university soon after my lunch. I booked a cab and it reached the pickup point as shown by the App. The moment I got into the cab, the driver asked me, “Oota aitha, Sir?”(Had your lunch, Sir?). “Aithu”, I replied hoping that he would pay his attention to driving rather than to his oota’ (lunch). But the cab driver of a highly cheerful disposition continued, “ spostobagini borolla? (Can’t speak fluently?”). I was silent knowing my limitation, but he went on. “No problem, Sir. I know Kannnada, Telegu, Tamil, English, Hindi. “That’s nice,” I spoke in English, the language of my livelihood. “Nimda Hindi?” (Are you a Hindi speaking person?), the cab driver enquired.
Linguistic pluralism is not encouraged by the votaries of linguistic chauvinism. All of us love our languages. We think in our mother tongue, we look at the world through our mother tongue, we are always ready to fight and die for our mother tongue. This is quite natural as we owe our existence to our mother, motherland and the mother tongue. But carrying pride in one’s language “too far” is called linguistic chauvinism. My mother tongue is the best, why should I speak your tongue? This kind of linguistic intolerance is anachronistic in the modern period of globalization. The more the merrier.
My musing on linguistic pluralism this morning is triggered by a news item published in the Times of India a few days back. It is reported that the Delhi Government is launching a ‘Spoken English’ course for students studying in Government schools from June onwards and the Directorate of Education, NCR, Delhi will organize the programme in collaboration with the British Council, India-McMillan Education, Academy for Computers Training and Trinity College London. Expressing his happiness, the Delhi Chief Minister has tweeted “Government school students mostly come from economically poor backgrounds. When I meet them, this was their biggest demand – Sir, ‘hame English bolna sikhwa dijiye.’ (Sir, help us to learn spoken English). I am so happy this course is now starting for government school students.”
Will this initiative remove the great English divide plaguing the language teaching scenario of the country? It is unfortunate that the benefits of learning English have not percolated through the various strata of our society. The vernacular medium students coming from the disadvantaged sections of the Indian society are desperate to have the English card to get an access to the protected citadel of the English knowing elites. The following remark by David Graddol, the author of the book, ‘English Next India’ is quite relevant in this context: “As part of that up skilling programme, India now aspires to make English universal, after a couple centuries of it being the preserve of an elite. But that must remain no more than an aspiration for longer than most people imagine. It will take another two or three generations to come near realising it. And is it necessary? Is it desirable? And if English is not democratised in this way, can India find a way of exploiting its English potential in a manner which leads to inclusive development, improving the lives of the masses?”
What are our strategies to democratize English? “No one should be left out”, as sang by Tagore: “The West has opened its doors, and everyone brings its gifts (home),/to exchange and to assimilate, and no one left out—/on the shores of this mighty ocean of humanity.” (Sanchaita, Kolkata). How long should an English-starved child of a Govt school cry “Sir, ‘hame English bolna sikhwa dijiye.” ?
Can we think of a short 5 day introductory course on ‘Academic writing in English’ which will familiarize the participants to the relationship between the forms and practices of disciplinary genres and will empower them to articulate their ideas and perspectives as per the established norms of academic writing in English? Postgraduate and M.Phil. students, research scholars working for their PhDs. across India and young writers interested in getting their papers published in international journals often feel the need for undergoing a short course on Academic Writing in English and keeping in view the felt need of a large number of Indian scholars and postgraduate students, the present course has been designed as a skill development exercise. It is meant for developing writing skills in Academic English, not for awarding a degree in Academic Writing in English. It is a 30 hour face to face course followed by online support as per the needs and the areas of interest of the participants.
1.Introduction: As a topic of inquiry and pedagogy, writing has been gaining increasing importance in the language classrooms throughout the world. Writing is no more viewed as a mere non-verbal means of communication, it is viewed as an index of the writers’ ability to interpret, analyze and express themselves clearly, correctly and vividly. It is the culmination of a language user’s repertoire in the target language.
Writing, whether academic or non-academic is always interactive, it is the interaction between the writer and the reader. Writing becomes meaningful and communicative only when the writer has an audience and a purpose for writing. The notion of writing as an organic interactive process is based on three solid blocks: audience, purpose and topic and these three blocks are equally important in all types of writing, shared writing, interactive writing, guided writing and independent writing. In order to sharpen the cognitive processes involved in process writing, language teachers have to use ample practice techniques for generating ideas, such as keeping a journal, brainstorming, free writing and to help the learners to understand the difference between revising and editing.
2. An Academic Writing Course in English:
In spite of the important role played by writing in the diverse fields of human interaction, academic institutions in India often ignore the importance of cultivating higher order writing skills among the students and the professionals. There is a paucity of institutions that run certificate, diploma or degree courses in academic writing in English. Some English Departments of a few Indian universities have papers on ‘Written English’ at the major or the post-graduation level, but these papers hardly equip the students with the specialized skills of writing in English. Postgraduate Departments of Modern Indian Languages in the colleges and universities in India often take it for granted that basic writing skills learnt in schools are enough for writing any discourse in the mother tongue at the graduation level. The absence of adequate academic literacy skills often poses serious problems for Indian undergraduate and postgraduate students who are required to conduct research, summarize, paraphrase and cite sources and adopt genre specific writing conventions. Writing tasks even in the first language involve a highly creative use of composing processes and a good command of the language.
3. Objectives of the Course
The present course aims to introduce the participants to the theory and practice of academic writing and to equip them with the tools necessary for writing academic essays, reports, articles, research papers and dissertations in English as per the accepted principles and conventions of academic writing in English. The course will enhance the participants’ conceptual understanding of the nature and scope of academic writing and will enable them to communicate their ideas in English in an appropriate manner, thematically as well as stylistically.
Topics like how to write the abstract of a research paper, how to present an argument and validate it with supporting evidences, how to reflect and write down the findings, how to paraphrase without resorting to plagiarism and how to maintain structural and thematic cohesion of a written text will be explored during the course.
There is a lot of controversy on the nature and scope of teaching, learning and assessing writing in English in an international context. The contrastive rhetoric theory propounded by Kaplan(1966) presumed that L2 students wrote in English according to the rhetorical conventions of their home cultures. Connor (1996) tried to explain why L2 students’ writing lacked linearity, logic and coherence of well-written English texts. But the findings of Kaplan and Connor received a great deal of criticism as ‘many novice L1 writers also exhibit nonlinear and digressive rhetorical patterns, implicating a developmental stage’ ( Casanave,2012:286).The present course on academic writing in English is based on the assumption that improvement in writing comes in developmental stages and in order to help the learners in acquiring the skills of writing academic English, we should provide them with adequate practice, through reading and through exposure to the models of academic writing. The second language writing development is neither linear nor monolingually achieved. Nurturing the cognitive and linguistic resources of the L2 learners can alone help her write competently in the target language.
4. Course content:
(a) What is academic writing, Basic elements of academic writing, relationship between writing and speaking, writing as a social and cultural phenomenon, writing as a cognitive activity
(b) Models of the writing process, integrating knowledge of topic, knowledge of audience
(c) Approaches to writing: genre based approach, Product based approach, Process based approach
(d) Language and rhetorical style, writing in first language and writing in a second language, Exploring the linguistic features of the written communication in English, semantic and ideological considerations in academic writing
(e) Presenting the stylistic features of English, helping the learners to navigate through genre specific written works in English, explaining relevant written styles with the help of exemplars.
(f) Stages of Writing: Generating ideas, Focusing on ideas, organizing ideas, drafting
(g) The Essentials of Writing: Thesis Statement, Topic Sentences, characteristics of body paragraph, conclusion, hands on experience, responding to the learners’ writing, focusing on content and structure, making the learners’ aware of the correlation between the global content and organization of ideas, prompting the learners to reflect on their own writing
(h) Writing with sources: Types of sources, locating sources, taking notes from sources, avoiding plagiarism, documenting sources
5. Course Strategy
The course strategy is based on the models of enhancing advanced writing skills which prompt the participants to produce relevant ideas, evaluate these ideas, organize and structure the ideas, conform to grammatical and stylistic conventions, write a draft, revise it and produce a final version.
(Anyone interested in organizing a 5 day course on Academic Writing in English in their institutions/organizations may write to firstname.lastname@example.org)
The purists of Indian languages may frown at the use of English during our interpersonal communication in Indian languages. The champions of the mother tongue education may consider code switching from Indian languages to English or ‘translangauging’ a sign of our snobbery to a foreign tongue that we inherited from our former colonial rulers. But the language behavior of an average educated Indian often indicates an all pervasive influence of English in our day to day life. Though English is an associate official language of India, its use in our daily life is not always official, it is often more than official, it is personal, emotional and social. English has become an integral part of the inner psyche of a large number of educated Indians who are exposed to English in numerous contexts. The spontaneous use of English words, phrases, idioms and expressions in the inner circle of the educated Indian families is amazing indeed! The way English has been replacing the use of mother tongues in the verbal repertoire of the educated Indians in their emotional life is a fit case for sociolinguistic study.
While analyzing the language of a a number of TV serials in Bengali, I started wondering if the word ‘Husband’ comes from the Bengali lexicon. In a popular Bengali TV serial broadcast in the evening, the anchor asks a participant, “Who has come with you?”, Quick comes the reply, “amar husband”. (my husband). Being intrigued, I watched some other serials in which the female characters had to refer to their husbands. In all the cases, it was “amar husband” (my husband). Though Bengali equivalent of husband is ‘swami’, ‘pati’,’bor’, the characters in the TV serials never use them. Doesn’t it follow the general trend followed in the educated Bengali society? A young educated girl asks her newly married friend, “ ei, tor hubbir khobor ki?” ( Hi, how is your hubby?). Hubby, not ‘Bor’. Are Bengali words ‘swami, ‘Bor’’ becoming obsolete?
আন্টি (auntie) is another word that has replaced Bengali words like মামি,(mami) পিসি (pisi) and মাসী (masi). Mother’s sister (Masi in Bengali) or father’s sister (Pisi in Bengali) had an emotional bondage for the Bengali children of the earlier generation. But these words are often alien to the tongue of the Bengali children of the present generation. The Bengali lullaby, “Ghum parani masi pisi, moder bari eso” does not make any sense to the English fed Bengali children. Similarly, Words like ‘kaku’, ‘jethu’ are being systematically replaced by the word ‘uncle’.
‘Girl friend’ and ‘boy friend’ have also become Indian terms of reference. No young man refers to his ‘girl friend’ in translation! In a number of regional films, the hero and the heroine express their feelings in Indian language, but when the ultimate moment of proclamation comes, it’s in English, “I love you…..”. Is the intensity of the emotion lost if it is uttered in the mother tongue? No, English is spontaneous, the voice of the inner self!!!
The language landscape of the educated young generation of India is too complicated and should be studied dispassionately. The so called linguistic boundary of the fifties and the language debates of the past make no sense to the multilingual young people of India. They speak languages, not a language, they have thousand voices, not a voice, they have multiple perspectives, not the sole didactic perspective of their parents.
It is amusing to listen to many Indian ELT experts and policy makers using the expressions ‘English for empowerment’, ‘English as a global Resource,’ ‘English for upward mobility,’ ‘English for social equality’ and ‘English for global citizenship’.The publication of Graddol’s monumental books ‘Future of English’ and ‘English Next: India’, made Indian ELT luminaries ecstatic, I should say. They started chanting these phrses without trying to translate into action Graddol’s observations. I was present at the British Council, Kolkata when Graddol’s ‘English Next: India’ was released. On that day, I sincerely hoped that the ELT fraternity of India would be inspired by Graddol’s pioneering research and the ELT scenario of the country would move to a positive direction. Was it a day dream? I wonder in retrospect.
Phrases like like ‘English for Empowerment’ or ‘ English for Development’ sound good, they could lead us to better days, but when I meet students who are unable to utter two meaningful sentences in English even after studying English in the regional medium schools of this country for eight to ten years, I realize the hollowness of these highly eulogized expressions which are now a days the staple food for many ELT experts. Go to the regional, national and international seminars and conferences held in various Indian colleges and universities throughout the year and you will listen to a galaxy of ELT experts repeating the same old rhetoric to a gullible audience. The Indian ELT world is full of sound and fury, but nobody knows what it means to millions of our students whose dreams are shattered at the altar of ELT.
The paradoxical position of English is an enigma to many people. On the one hand, the ‘English advantage’ acquired and nurtured by the Indian youth is the envy of the rest of the world and it is this language that has given our engineers, doctors, scientists and academicians access to the global workplace. But, on the other hand, it is this language which hinders the success of millions of school children across the country. While English is the lamp of Alladin for the privileged, it is the proverbial Achilles heel for the underprivileged!
What ails ELT in India? The answer is simple: The syllabus, the textbook and the pedagogy: three points of the vicious triangle that haunt me even in my dreams.
It is really unfortunate that the teaching of English and the teaching of the mother tongue are placed at opposite poles in our school curriculum. Though the NCF Position Paper on English Language Teaching categorically pointed out that ‘English can occur in tandem with the first languages(s) of the learners at the lower primary stage, or at least in class I to III’, no attempt is made at the primary level to align the learning of the first language with the learning of the second language, that is, English. Have a look at the class 1 textbook of any Indian language and the class 1 English textbook prescribed by a State Board or the NCERT and you will see the disconnect between the two textbooks. Why does an English textbook alienate the young learners? The English textbooks often fail to prompt them to make a connection between the new language and their mental and social world but it is not the same in the case of the textbook used for teaching the mother tongue or the school language.The textbooks used for teaching the mother tongue or the school language, use the materials very carefully to prompt the learners to make a spontaneous connection between the language and their mental world.
A study of the class I language textbooks of a number of State Boards and the NCERT will bring out the mismatch between the English textbooks and the Indian language textbooks used by the same child in the same class .Can’t the English textbook writers and the writers of other Indian language textbooks develop textbooks in a collaborative manner to avoid this mismatch?
Learning a new language is not learning a few new words, expressions or the syntactical patterns of that language. Learning a language is the ability to look at the world through that language and therefore, a multilingual person has the ability to look at the world from multiple perspectives.
Learning a new language is bound to be a mechanical exercise if no experiential learning takes place through that language. Let’s take the poem, The Flying-Man prescribed in the NCERT class I English textbook. The learner is given the following task? “Choose your answer: The Flying-man is Superman. The Flying-man is a pilot. The Flying-man is an astronaut. The Flying-man is Batman.” What kind of experiential learning is visualized in this task? Compare this task with the true/false task given after the poem Rosoighar (Kitchen) of Rimjhim, the NCERT Hindi textbook for the same class. The poem Flying-Man alienates the child from her environment and she fails to connect her world with the world of the Flying-Man. The Hindi textbook for class I can have a poem about ‘Kitchen’, but the English textbook will be un-English if Batman is not mentioned in that book!